Tutorial Category

Linux Server Administration

  1. Apache Web Server Hardening (Part-I)

    Apache is widely used web server at present date. Having a default configuration is highly vulnerable to exploitation as it supplies most sensitive information to attacker. So, hardening a apache web server enhances the server security and prevents attacks on server that is caused by the exploitation of default setting of the apache web server.
  2. How To update and upgrade Arch Linux

    By Yang Li tagged in Arch Linux,pacman,Update,upgrade
      I've started using Arch Linux for a few weeks now, and I've installed it on my BIP media VPS (Virtual Private Server). I must say I really like it. I'm posting some tips about Arch Linux if you want to give it a try. Arch (Like Gentoo) is a rolling release, unlike Debian or Ubuntu, where from time to time you get a new fresh release, and you have to upgrade it. In Arch Linux the packages are constantly being updated, so to get the last version of...
  3. How To Install Locate On CentOS Server

    Introduction This how-to will show you how to install locate on a CentOS server. This command is often the easiest and fastest way to find the location of files and directories. This is very useful when you’re working on a Linux system for which you are not well acquainted. When you install mlocate, it will install the two commands locate and updatedb. It will also install a cron job that updates the database daily. Prerequisites A server running CentOS. If you do not have a server and...
  4. List of Proxmox important configuration files directory

    There are many times when we need to find the path to certain configuration files for Proxmox LXC or KVM or OpenVZ. It takes time to constantly keep looking them up or remember them so here are all the important path for anyone who needs it when dealing with Proxmox! OpenVZ config: /etc/vz/conf/xxx.conf data: /var/lib/vz/root/xxx template: /var/lib/vz/template/cache snapshot: /var/lib/vz/dump OpenVZ config: /etc/vz/vz.conf KVM config: /etc/pve/qemu-server/xxx.conf data: /var/lib/vz/images/xxx template: /var/lib/vz/template/iso snapshot: /var/lib/vz/dump LXC config: /var/lib/lxc/xxx/config data: /var/lib/vz/images/xxx template: /var/lib/vz/template/cache snapshot: /var/lib/vz/dump PROXMOX Cluster config: /etc/pve/cluster.conf nodes vm config: /etc/pve/nodes/xxx/xxx/qemu-server/xxx.conf Files corosync.conf => corosync/cman cluster configuration file (previous to PVE 4.x this file was called cluster.conf) storage.cfg ...
  5. How to configure auto-update of Let’s Encrypt certificates with Nginx

    Let’s Encrypt is a free, automated, and open certificate authority (CA), run for the public’s benefit. One of the features of Let’s Encrypt is ninety-day lifetimes for certificates. There are many tutorials how to automate the procedure of updating certificates. All of them have their pros and cons. For example you must manually create folders and files or stop web-server for several minutes... I think I found one of the simpliest ways. The main idea is to let Let's Encrypt to start a web-server on...
  6. How To Redirect HTTP to HTTPS using an .htaccess file

    The below code when added to an .htaccess file will automatically Redirect HTTP traffic to https: RewriteEngine On RewriteCond %{HTTPS} off RewriteRule (.*) https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [R,L] ...
  7. How to Install the latest OpenSSL 1.0.2h Version on CentOS 6/7

    latest OpenSSL is an open source project that provides a robust, commercial-grade, and full-featured toolkit for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocols. It is also a general-purpose cryptography library. The latest OpenSSL 1.0.2h was released on 03-rd of May 2016. If you are worried about your server security you should update the OpenSSl package to the latest version. Unfortunately all of the CentOS releases includes the out-of-date version of OpenSSL. For example: CentOS 6.7 has OpenSSL 1.0.1e-fips...
  8. PHP Data Objects

    By Priyanka Bansal tagged in data,Objects,PDO,php,PHP Data,PHP Data Objects,PHP Objects
    PHP Data Objects (PDO) PHP Data Objects, also known as PDO, is an interface for accessing databases in PHP/aithout tying code to a specific database. Rather than directly calling mysql_, mysqli_, and pg_ functions, developers can use the PDO interface, simplifying the porting of applications to other databases. Database Support The extension can support any database that a PDO driver has been written for. At the time of this writing, the following database drivers are available: PDO_DBLIB ( FreeTDS / Microsoft SQL Server...
  9. How To Setup CentOS WebPanel On A VPS

    This article will show you how to setup CentOS WebPanel on your Virtual Private Server -VPS. There are multiple alternatives available but I will focus on an easy approach and let you inspect the other options on your own. This article doe not show you what to do after you deployed the WebPanel. It will only point you to the next steps.
  10. How To install Fail2ban "service SSH" on CentOS/RHEL 7

    By Vladimir Ivanov tagged in banned,centos 7,Fail2ban,failban,host,RHEL 7,Server,ssh
    About Fail2Ban Servers do not exist in isolation, and those servers with only the most basic SSH configuration can be vulnerable to brute force attacks. fail2ban provides a way to automatically protect the server from malicious signs. The program works by scanning through log files and reacting to offending actions such as repeated failed login attempts. Install Repository Because fail2ban is not available from CentOS, we should start by downloading the EPEL repository: First, you need to enable EPEL repository on your system. rpm -Uvh http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/7/x86_64/e/epel-release-7-1.noarch.rpm Update Once you are in the first...
  11. How To Build Linux kernels the Debian way

    By Samantha tagged in Build,customize,debian,kernel
    This short tutorial describes a quick and easy way to customize, build and install a Linux kernel under Debian or Ubuntu Linux. First, we will install all prerequisites and then download the kernel source. Next step will be the customization or the kernel and the last step will be to create and install a Debian package with the new Customized Linux kernel. 1. Prerequisites Let's start with the first step which is installing all the prerequisites: # apt-get install bzip2 build-essential \ kernel-package libncurses5-dev 2. Kernel build and customization Next step is to download the kernel source code from kernel.org....
  12. How To Add ISO Image To apt sources.list

    By Daniel Smith tagged in Add,apt,apt sources,ISO,ISO Image,list
    Here is a way how to include a Debian/Ubuntu ISO image into your /etc/apt/sources.list file. This kind of hack can prove handy in terms of reducing package download during the installation or if you do not have CD/DVD drive available ( or is broken ) on your system. Let's assume that we have a Debian ISO image downloaded at the location: /mnt/storage/iSO/debian-i386-DVD-1.iso. As a first step we need to create a mount point to where this ISO image will be mounted to: mkdir /mnt/debian-dvd Now we need to...
  13. How To Clear Linux / UNIX BASH Shell Command Line Cache / History

    Introduction to Shell Q. I just noticed faq about clearing dns cache and there are lots of commands stored in my cache. Can you tell me the command to clear out my command history or cache from a shell prompt? A. Many programs read input from the user a line at a time. The GNU history library is able to keep track of those lines, associate arbitrary data with each line, and utilize information from previous lines in composing new ones. Bash and other shell may use this history library....
  14. How To Install php-tidy Module / Extension On CentOS / RHEL

    I'm a new CentOS / RHEL / Red Hat / Fedora Linux server admin. I need to install tidy library support using php. How do I install php-tidy on RHEL or CentOS Linux for Apache server? You need to install the following module using the yum command on RHEL/ CentOS/ Fedora/ Scientific Linux server: php-tidy - The php tidy package contains a dynamic shared object that will add support for using the tidy library to PHP.   Install php-tidy module on RHEL/CentOS Open the Terminal and type the following yum command: # yum install php-tidy Sample outputs: Loaded plugins: auto-update-debuginfo, protectbase, rhnplugin, security This system is receiving...
  15. How To Install Drupal 7 On Ubuntu Linux

    Install Drupal 7 In this tutorial you will learn how to Install Drupal 7 ( CMS ) on Ubuntu Linux using Apache web server and MySQL database. This installation guide assumes that Apache web server and MySQL database are already installed on your Linux system. These instructions can be also used on a Debian server or any other Debian based Linux systems. All commands below are run as root. If you are a sudo user, prefix all commands below with sudo. Prerequisites Installation # apt-get install php5-mysql apache2 \ mysql-server php5-gd libapache2-mod-php5 Download And Decompress...
  16. How To Lock Down Your Linux Server For Additional Security

    Introduction to Linux Security Linux Security. Most people rarely secure a freshly installed server right off the bat, but in the world we live in this is an absolute must. So if it’s so important to, why do so many people wait and do it last, if at all? I’m as guilty as the next person. It often comes down to just wanting to to start developing and doing the fun stuff. Hopefully this tutorial will show that it is far better secure your server first, and have the peace of...
  17. How To Install And Run Minecraft On A Linux VPS

    By Christopher Belson‏ tagged in centos,debian,install,linux vps,minecraft,run
    Debian based distributions are recommended for easiest installations. Prerequisites Start by installing the latest version of java. You can check if you already have the latest version by running java -version Debian, Ubuntu sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install openjdk-7-jre screen CentOS, Redhat, Fedora yum update yum install java-1.7.0-openjdk screen You should also install screen so you can access the console as needed without having to worry about keeping the console open Spigot Server Run the following commands: cd /home wget -O BuildTools.jar https://hub.spigotmc.org/jenkins/job/BuildTools/lastSuccessfulBuild/artifact/target/BuildTools.jar java -jar BuildTools.jar export MAVEN_OPTS="-Xmx2G" java -Xmx2G -Dmac.supported=true -jar BuildTools.jar rm -f BuildTools.jar ...
  18. How To Build And Install Bitcoin On CentOS 7

    By Jack tagged in bitcoin,Build,centos 7,install,Libraries
    The following instructions show you how to configure, compile, and install Bitcoin 0.9.4 on CentOS 7. Update Your Operating System Packages The first step is to always make sure your operating system and all of it's packages are up-to-date. yum upgrade Adding EPEL Repository Bitcoin requires a few libraries that are not provided by the default CentOS package repository. We could build these libraries from source but a better option is to use EPEL. yum install http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/epel/7/x86_64/e/epel-release-7-5.noarch.rpm Installing Dependencies The following packages are...
  19. How to Reset Yum's Fastestmirror Plugin

    The yum-fastestmirror plugin is great for server admins. It goes out and attempts to determine which mirror would be faster to download from and automatically selects that mirror. The plugin works well for the most part but every once in a while it can choose a mirror that is slow. If you want to reset the plugin so that it will retest the mirrors all you have to do is the following: rm -f /var/cache/yum/timedhosts.txt yum install <package> ...
  20. How To Use wget For Recursive FTP

    We have found that using wget to recursively grab FTP contents is useful in the following situation: You cannot use rsync or scp due to restricted or no shell access on the remote server You need to recursively get directories and globbing with mget * isn't working as expected Transferring files to an intermediate workstation first is not feasible due to time/filesize constraints If all of these apply to you, then a recursive wget via FTP is probably...
  21. How To Upgrade CentOS 32Bit 4.x To 32Bit 5.x

    We have found the following guide very useful in this process. This works for both dedicated servers as well as VPS nodes: cPanel Servers If your server has cPanel installed you first need to remove filesystem from the exclude line in /etc/yum.conf. If you don't the yum upgrade procedures below will fail. Setting file attributes chattr -Ria /bin chattr -Ria /etc chattr -Ria /etc chattr -Ria /include chattr -Ria /lib chattr -Ria /sbin chattr -Ria /usr/bin chattr -Ria /usr/include chattr -Ria /usr/lib chattr -Ria /usr/libexec chattr -Ria /usr/local/bin chattr -Ria /usr/local/include chattr -Ria /usr/local/lib chattr -Ria /usr/local/sbin chattr -Ria /usr/sbin chattr -Ria /usr/share chattr -Ria /var/lib chattr -Ria /var/lock chattr -Ria...
  22. How To Upgrade Debian Lenny (5.0) To Squeeze (6.0)

    Please Note: It is wise to uninstall packages from third-party sources or those that were manually installed via a .deb to prevent possible conflicts and related issues. To begin, edit /etc/apt/sources.list and change all occurrences of lenny to squeeze. A quick vi macro if you use it would be %s/lenny/squeeze/g. Once finished, you file should look similar to the one below. # main repo deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian/squeeze main deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian/squeeze main deb http://security.debian.org/ squeeze /updates main deb-src http://security .debian.org/ squeeze /updates main Next we'll update...
  23. How To Shrink An LVM Volume

    By Tilisha tagged in lvm,shrink,Shrink LVM,VolGroup00,Volume
    The following steps will show you how to shrink an LVM volume. In this example we will be shrinking volume VolGroup00-LogVol00 down to 20GB. Please Note: This can and will cause data loss if performed improperly or on a volume that you attempt to shrink below the current volume usage. With that said, the steps are as follows: umount /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00 e2fsck -f /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00 resize2fs /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00 20G lvreduce -L 20G /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00 e2fsck -f /dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00 The process is similar when expanding a logical volume except the lvextend command is used in place of lvreduce.  ...
  24. How To Secure cPanel After Install

    Secure cPanel Introduction This guide is intended to give some basic steps to Secure cPanel after the initial installation. Please see our Initial Setup Guide if you have not already completed it. Tweak cPanel Settings Under Main » Server Configuration » Tweak Settings, enable (E) or disable (D) the following options: Prevent users from parking/adding on common internet domains. (E) Attempt to prevent pop3 connection floods (E) Default catch-all/default address behavior for new accounts (Blackhole) Use jailshell as the default shell for all new accounts and modified accounts (E) Always redirect users to the...
  25. How To Use DD Over Netcat Vs SSH

    dd is a very handy shell command for writing raw data blocks from one place to another. Since it can read directly from raw device files, it is very useful for copying entire partitions or drives from one location to another. One traditional way to get this drive data from one location to another is to pipe DD's output stream over SSH to a shell on a remote machine which in turn uses dd to pipe it to...
  26. How To Get Your LVM To Show Up In Single User Mode

    When booting Linux into single user mode or rescue mode, you will find that unless the distro was found and enabled the logical volumes, you wont see any devices. This makes it a fun task when you need to mount, scan, resize a partition. Below are instructions on enabling your logical volumes. lvm vgscan lvm vgchange -ay lvm lvs It's as simple as that, now you should see your normal LVM devices in /dev Example: /dev/LVM-GROUP/LVM-VOLUME...
  27. How To Lock And Unlock A System User Account

    Disabling shell access doesn't fully lock a user out of a server. They can still login via ftp/pop/imap/smtp servers if they are running on the local server and are checking local user authentication. Below you will find instructions on how to fully lock a system users account. In this example we will lock the system user peterhope /bin/passwd -l  In this example we will unlock the system user peterhope /bin/passwd -u peterhope ...
  28. How To Install IOTop On CentOS 5

    Iotop is a Python program with a top like UI used to show of behalf of which process is the I/O going on. This can come in handy for administrators trying to track down a specific process that may be causing a disk I/O bottleneck. Pre-Requisites IOTop uses features that are a part of a newer kernel build than what CentOS ships with, so you must upgrade your kernel to at least 2.6.20. The process of doing so is outside of the scope of this article; guides can...
  29. ImageMagick [Imagick] PHP Class Broken Or Fails To Install

    Introduction to Imagick Some versions of CentOS (including the most recent 5.5) have an issue with a buggy 6.4.8 RPM version of ImageMagick. This version prevents the Imagick PHP class from working properly, and also prevents the extension from being installed via PECL. If you are using this PHP class on your site, you will see an error something like: Fatal error: Class 'Imagick' not found in /home/user/public_html/file.php on line 92 When trying to install via PECL, the error will be: ... make: *** [imagick_helpers.lo]...
  30. How To Harden Your TCP/IP Stack Against SYN Floods

    SYN Floods Denial of service (DoS) attacks launch via SYN floods can be very problematic for servers that are not properly configured to handle them. Proper firewall filtering policies are certainly usually the first line of defense, however the Linux kernel can also be hardened against these types of attacks. This type of hardening is useful for SYN floods that attempt to overload a particular service with requests (such as http) as opposed to one that intends to saturate the server's network connection, for which a firewall...
  31. How To Extract The Contents Of An RPM File

    By Tasia tagged in centos,Contents,Extract,how-to,rpm
    Sometimes it can be useful to extract the contents of a RPM file without actually installing it. In order to do so, use the following command: rpm2cpio file.rpm | cpio -idmv Please Note: This will extract the rpm into whatever directory you are in, including all of it's sub-directories. So for example, if you change directory into / and run the command above the rpm will be extracted and files/directories placed just as if you had installed the rpm. Normally first...
  32. How To Disable Shell Access For A Specific User

    If you would like to disable shell access for a specific user you can do the following. In this example we will disable shell access for username johnsmith: chsh -s /bin/false johnsmith Please note that this disables shell access for the user when they are logging in using the normal means. If the user is able to execute commands through a PHP/CGI script they can spawn their own shell. ...
  33. How To Determine The File System Type Of A Partition

    By Fredric tagged in disk management,file systems,Partition
    The following command will show you the filesystem type of a partition on a physical disk, LVM, or flat file disk image. blkid /dev/sda1 Read the man page for blkid to see how else it can be used to get the information you're looking for....
  34. How To Fix A Crontab Wrong Permission Error

    By Tasia tagged in cron,file system permissions,how-to
    If you are receiving the error /usr/bin/crontab permissions are wrong. Please set to 4755 when in the cron section of cPanel, the commands below may correct the error for Redhat/CentOS/Fedora servers. Log into the server via SSH or the console as root and run: yum -y install vixie-cron crontabs chmod 4755 /usr/bin/crontab That's it. See how easy it is to fix permission errors in your crontab. Feel free to leave me a reply below if you have any question or needs my help. ...
  35. How To Change Your Hostname

    Change the hostname line in /etc/sysconfig/network to the hostname you want (this file may be different on FreeBSd and others). Your hostname should be something prefixing a domain you own (this is referred to as a fully qualified domain name, FQDN), so server1.yourdomain.com for example, not just yourdomain.com. Changing it in that file ensure that your hostname gets set each time networking starts, however you'd need to restart networking for it to get set in the current session with just that changed. This is...
  36. How To Change The Shell Type For A Specific User

    If you would like to change the shell type for a specific user you can do the following. In this example we will change the shell type for username jimmysmith to Bash: chsh -s /bin/bash jimmysmith If you have any questions feel free to leave me a note below and I will get back to you....
  37. How To Change The Time Zone In Linux

    To set the timezone in Linux, update /etc/localtime with the appropriate timezone file from /usr/share/zoneinfo. Example: rm -f /etc/localtime ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Los_Angeles /etc/localtime This would set your time zone to PST/PDT (Pacific Time) because that is the time zone Los Angles is located in....
  38. How To Change The Language In A Linux (BaSH) Shell

    To set your current shell to a different language you use the bash variable LANG followed by the language you want: LANG=en_us_8859_1 If you want to set that so its used every time add an export line to your .bashrc for that user. The .bashrc file can be found in each user's homedir, if they don't have one you can create it: export LANG=en_us_8859_1 The command locale will show you information about locale on the server. The command locale -a will give you a list of all the locale you can...
  39. How To Enable Automatic Software Updates On CentOS 5

    It's important to keep your server software up-to-date. The commands below will enable automatic nightly updates using CentOS 5's default yum package manager. yum -y install yum-cron crontabs vixie-cron service cron start chkconfig --level 2345 yum-cron on service yum-cron start If you have any questions, feel free to leave a reply below and I will be more then happy to answer any questions you may have....
  40. How To Block IP Addresses Using IPtables

    The following article describes various ways to block IPs using the built-in RedHat firewall, iptables. The following command will drop all incoming connections from IP xx.xx.xx.xx: iptables -I INPUT -s xx.xx.xx.xx -j DROP To block a range, such as xx.xx.xx.* specify the CIDR block as follows: iptables -I INPUT -s xx.xx.xx.0/24 -j DROP If you wanted to later remove this entry you would replace the -I with -D as follows: iptables -D INPUT -s...
  41. How To Stress Test An Apache Server Using AB (Apache Benchmark)

    Using a benchmarking tool to test the limits of your apache server will help you prepare for upgrades. Installing AB on CentOS (with cPanel) cPanel adds in an exclusion for all packages named httpd* (any files starting with httpd) to prevent accidentally overwriting apache. SSH into your server. Edit /etc/yum.conf and remove the entry httpd* from the Exclude line vi /etc/yum.conf exclude=bind-chroot courier* dovecot* exim* filesystem httpd* mod_ssl* mydns* mysql* nsd* php* proftpd* pure-ftpd* spamassassin* squirrelmail* Once the entry has been...
  42. How To Redirect Non-www Traffic To www Using mod_rewrite

    This is an example using the mod_rewrite Apache module to force all traffic to your site to www.yourdomain.com . This can be useful in an SSL context, as well as for SEO purposes. Create a .htaccess file in your webroot (public_html for cPanel servers) and add the following lines: RewriteEngine On RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^your-domain.com RewriteRule (.*) http://www.your-domain.com/$1 [R=301,L] ...
  43. How To Redirect HTTP Traffic To HTTPS Using An .htaccess File

    The below code when added to an .htaccess file will automatically redirect any traffic destined for http: to https: RewriteEngine On RewriteCond %{HTTPS} off RewriteRule (.*) https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [R,L] ...
  44. How To Install mod_python For Apache Under cPanel

    To begin, let's grab the latest version of mod_python. We will need to get the SVN version of mod_python as the last previous versioned release has a problem compiling on RHEL5-based systems. Since cPanel servers do not come with Subversion installed by default, we'll need to satisfy that pre-requisite first. Due to cPanel building Perl modules from source, we will be unable to install Subversion via Yum and must do so from source. yum -y...
  45. How To Put Your Site Into Maintenance Mode

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  46. How To Install Apache 2.2.x And PHP 5.3.x On CentOS 5

    This guide assumes you have a minimal CentOS installation and are not planning on running a control panel such as cPanel, which installs the Apache webserver for you. Some of the software versions listed below may need to be changed as they are updated. As of the writing of this article, Apache 2.2.16 and PHP 5.3.3 are the latest versions. Install required packages using Yum yum install bison flex gcc db4 db4-devel libxml2-devel libpng-devel mysql-devel make Download Apache source ( You should...
  47. How To Compile PHP On CentOS 5 (64Bit) With MySQL Support

    If you try to build PHP 5.x.x on a 64bit CentOS install you may get this error: checking for specified location of the MySQL UNIX socket... no checking for MySQL UNIX socket location... /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock checking for mysql_close in -lmysqlclient... no checking for mysql_error in -lmysqlclient... no configure: error: mysql configure failed. Please check config.log for more information. Looking further into the config.log you will also see: configure:60376: checking for mysql_error in -lmysqlclient configure:60395: gcc -o conftest -I/usr/include -g -O2  -Wl,-rpath,/usr/lib/mysql -L/usr/lib/mysql -L/usr/lib  -Wl,-rpath,/usr/kerberos/lib64 -L/usr/kerberos/lib64 -Wl,-rpath,/usr -L/usr conftest.c -lmysqlclient  -lz -lpng -lz -lcurl...
  48. An Introduction To Linux I/O Redirection

    This tutorial is part 4 of 4 in the series: Getting Started with Linux Introduction Linux Redirection The Linux redirection capabilities built into Linux provide you with a robust set of tools used to make all sorts of tasks easier to accomplish. Whether you're writing complex software or performing file management through the command line, knowing how to manipulate the different I/O streams in your environment will greatly increase your productivity. Linux Redirection Streams Input and output in the Linux environment is distributed across three...
  49. An Introduction To Linux Permissions

    This tutorial is part 3 of 4 in the series: Getting Started with Linux Introduction Linux Permissions Linux is a multi-user OS that is based on the Unix concepts of file ownership and permissions to provide security, at the file system level. If you are planning improving your Linux skills, it is essential that have a decent understanding of how linux ownership and linux permissions work. There are many intricacies when dealing with file ownership and permissions, but we will try our best to...
  50. Basic Linux Navigation And File Management

    This tutorial is part 2 of 4 in the series: Getting Started with Linux Introduction to File Management If you do not have much experience working with Linux systems, you may be overwhelmed by the prospect of controlling an operating system File Management from the command line. In this guide, we will attempt to get you up to speed with the basics. This guide will not cover everything you need to know to effectively use a Linux system. However, it should give you a good jumping-off point for...
  51. An Introduction To The Linux Terminal

    Introduction To Linux Terminal This tutorial is part 1 of 4 in the series: Getting Started with Linux. This tutorial, which is the first in a series that teaches Linux basics to get new users on their feet, covers getting started with the linux terminal, the Linux command line, and executing commands. If you are new to Linux, you will want to familiarize yourself with the terminal, as it is the standard way to interact with a Linux server. Using the command line may seem like a daunting...
  52. How To Get Started With FreeBSD 10.1

    This tutorial is part 2 of 7 in the series: Getting Started with FreeBSD FreeBSD is a secure, high performance operating system that is suitable for a variety of server roles. In this guide, we will cover some basic information about how to get started with a FreeBSD server. Step One — Log In with SSH The first step you need to take to begin configuring your FreeBSD server is to log in. On BIP media, you must provide a public SSH key when creating a FreeBSD server. This key is...
  53. Setting Up Your Own Cloud Service With OwnCloud

    Introduction to OwnCloud The media has alerted the general public to a number of security breaches, some more notable than others. Whether they are large or small, these security breaches represent an issue for the consumer and confidence in the cloud is at an all-time low. Services like iCloud and Dropbox are losing customers left and right, but if you are like most, you enjoy the features that the cloud has to offer. Read below about setting up your OwnCloud. Synching files, notes, photos, calendars are great examples of cloud services, and in the modern world, they...
  54. CodeIgniter : Understanding The Basics With A VPS

    Introduction As technology moves forward and becomes the domain of the common individual, Object Oriented Programming has also gained a considerable amount of popularity. CodeIgniter is a great example of a program gaining such popularity, and to make it even better, it is a lightweight PHP web application framework. What does that mean for you exactly? Because CodeIgniter IS in fact a PHP application, it does not necessarily need to be installed on your personal/local machine. Instead, it will be installed on a server that utilizes...