BIP KB Tag: don't wait to educate

A Comparative Introduction To FreeBSD For Linux Users

Introduction To Free BSD FreeBSD is a free and open source Unix-like operating system and a popular server platform. While FreeBSD and other BSD-based systems share much in common with systems like Linux, there are points where these two families diverge in important ways. In this guide, we will briefly discuss some commonalities between FreeBSD and Linux before moving on to a more extended discussion of the important differences be...
By daniel, January 23, 2015


An Introduction To Basic FreeBSD Maintenance

This tutorial is part 5 of 7 in the series: Getting Started with FreeBSDIntroduction When administering FreeBSD 10.1 servers, it is important to understand the basic maintenance procedures that will help you keep your systems in good shape. In this guide, we will be covering the basic processes needed to keep your server up-to-date and functioning properly. We will be covering how to update the base operating system that the Fre...
By fredric, January 23, 2015


How To Manage Packages On FreeBSD 10.1 With Pkg

This tutorial is part 6 of 7 in the series: Getting Started with FreeBSD Introduction to FreeBSD on a VPS server FreeBSD binary package manager, pkg, can be used to easily manage the installation of pre-compiled applications, the FreeBSD equivalent Debian and RPM packages. When compared with the other prevalent method of software installation on FreeBSD 10.1, compiling ports with the Ports Collection, using packages provides a simpler and...
By bobby, January 23, 2015


How To Install And Manage Ports On FreeBSD 10.1

This tutorial is part 7 of 7 in the series: Getting Started with FreeBSD. Introduction FreeBSD is a powerful operating system capable of functioning in a variety of roles. Part of what makes this operating system an ideal choice in many scenarios is its reputation for flexibility. A large contribution to this reputation comes from FreeBSD's supported method for installing software from source, known as the ports system. ...
By tasia, January 23, 2015


An Introduction To The Linux Terminal

Introduction To Linux Terminal This tutorial is part 1 of 4 in the series: Getting Started with Linux. This tutorial, which is the first in a series that teaches Linux basics to get new users on their feet, covers getting started with the Linux terminal, the Linux command line, and executing commands. If you are new to Linux, you will want to familiarize yourself with the terminal, as it is the standard way to interact with a Linux s...
By jack, January 23, 2015


Basic Linux Navigation And File Management

This tutorial is part 2 of 4 in the series: Getting Started with Linux Introduction to File Management If you do not have much experience working with Linux systems, you may be overwhelmed by the prospect of controlling an operating system File Management from the command line. In this guide, we will attempt to get you up to speed with the basics. This guide will not cover everything you need to know to effectively use a Linux syst...
By justin, January 23, 2015


An Introduction To Linux Permissions

This tutorial is part 3 of 4 in the series: Getting Started with Linux Introduction Linux Permissions Linux is a multi-user OS that is based on the Unix concepts of file ownership and permissions to provide security, at the file system level. If you are planning on improving your Linux skills, it is essential that have a decent understanding of how Linux ownership and Linux permissions work. There are many intricacies when dealing w...
By frank, January 23, 2015


An Introduction To Linux I/O Redirection

This tutorial is part 4 of 4 in the series: Getting Started with Linux Introduction Linux Redirection The Linux redirection capabilities built into Linux provide you with a robust set of tools used to make all sorts of tasks easier to accomplish. Whether you're writing complex software or performing file management through the command line, knowing how to manipulate the different I/O streams in your environment will greatly increa...
By yang-li, January 23, 2015


How To Compile PHP On CentOS 5 (64Bit) With MySQL Support

If you try to build PHP 5.x.x on a 64bit CentOS install you may get this error: checking for specified location of the MySQL UNIX socket... no checking for MySQL UNIX socket location... /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock checking for mysql_close in -lmysqlclient... no checking for mysql_error in -lmysqlclient... no configure: error: mysql configure failed. Please check config.log for more information. Looking further ...
By wen, January 24, 2015


How To Install Apache 2.2.x And PHP 5.3.x On CentOS 5

This guide assumes you have a minimal CentOS installation and are not planning on running a control panel such as cPanel, which installs the Apache web server for you. Some of the software versions listed below may need to be changed as they are updated. As of the writing of this article, Apache 2.2.16 and PHP 5.3.3 are the latest versions. Install the required packages using Yum yum install bison flex gcc db4 db4-devel libx...
By lee, January 24, 2015


How To Put Your Site Into Maintenance Mode

...
By tommy, January 24, 2015


How To Install mod_python For Apache Under cPanel

To begin, let's grab the latest version of mod_python. We will need to get the SVN version of mod_python as the last previous versioned release has a problem compiling on RHEL5-based systems. Since cPanel servers do not come with Subversion installed by default, we'll need to satisfy that pre-requisite first. Due to cPanel building Perl modules from source, we will be unable to install Subversion via Yum and must do so...
By tilisha, January 24, 2015


How To Redirect HTTP Traffic To HTTPS Using An .htaccess File

The below code, when added to a .htaccess file, will automatically redirect any traffic destined for http: to https: RewriteEngine On RewriteCond %{HTTPS} off RewriteRule (.*) https://%{HTTP_HOST}%{REQUEST_URI} [R,L] ...
By lee, January 24, 2015


How To Redirect Non-www Traffic To www Using mod_rewrite

This is an example using the mod_rewrite Apache module to force all traffic to your site to www.yourdomain.com . This can be useful in an SSL context, as well as for SEO purposes. Create a .htaccess file in your web root (public_html for cPanel servers) and add the following lines: RewriteEngine On RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^your-domain.com RewriteRule (.*) http://www.your-domain.com/$1 [R=301,L] ...
By tasia, January 24, 2015


How To Stress Test An Apache Server Using AB (Apache Benchmark)

Using a benchmarking tool to test the limits of your apache server will help you prepare for upgrades. Installing AB on CentOS (with cPanel)cPanel adds in an exclusion for all packages named httpd* (any files starting with httpd) to prevent accidentally overwriting apache. SSH into your server. Edit /etc/yum.conf and remove the entry httpd* from the Exclude line vi /etc/yum.conf exclude=bind-chroot courier* dov...
By steve, January 24, 2015


How To Block IP Addresses Using IPtables

The following article describes various ways to block IPs using the built-in RedHat firewall, iptables. The following command will drop all incoming connections from IP xx.xx.xx.xx: iptables -I INPUT -s xx.xx.xx.xx -j DROP To block a range, such as xx.xx.xx.* specify the CIDR block as follows: iptables -I INPUT -s xx.xx.xx.0/24 -j DROP If you wanted to later remove this entry you would replace...
By samantha, January 24, 2015


How To Enable Automatic Software Updates On CentOS 5

It's important to keep your server software up-to-date. The commands below will enable automatic nightly updates using CentOS 5's default yum package manager. yum -y install yum-cron crontabs vixie-cron service cron start chkconfig --level 2345 yum-cron on service yum-cron start If you have any questions, feel free to leave a reply below and I will be more then happy to answer any questions you may ha...
By tilisha, January 24, 2015


How To Install And Configure X11 With Remote VNC Access On Centos 5

The instructions below will walk you through the process of installing the X window system, GNOME desktop environment, and configuring VNC so that you can access it remotely. yum -y upgrade yum -y groupinstall "GNOME Desktop Environment" yum -y install vnc-server As a general rule of thumb, you should never run X windows as root. In this example, we will add a system user with the username 'wkst' and configure X windo...
By tommy, January 24, 2015


How To Change The Language In A Linux (BaSH) Shell

To set your current shell to a different language you use the bash variable LANG followed by the language you want: LANG=en_us_8859_1 If you want to set that so its used every time add an export line to your .bashrc for that user. The .bashrc file can be found in each user's homedir, if they don't have one you can create it: export LANG=en_us_8859_1 The command locale will show you informa...
By yang-li, January 24, 2015


How To Change The Time Zone In Linux

To set the timezone in Linux, update /etc/localtime with the appropriate timezone file from /usr/share/zoneinfo. Example: rm -f /etc/localtime ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/America/Los_Angeles /etc/localtime This would set your time zone to PST/PDT (Pacific Time) because that is the time zone Los Angles is located in....
By steve, January 24, 2015


How To Change The Shell Type For A Specific User

If you would like to change the shell type for a specific user you can do the following. In this example we will change the shell type for username jimmysmith to Bash: chsh -s /bin/bash jimmysmith If you have any questions feel free to leave me a note below and I will get back to you....
By wen, January 24, 2015


How To Change Your Hostname

Change the hostname line in /etc/sysconfig/network to the hostname you want (this file may be different on FreeBSd and others). Your hostname should be something prefixing a domain you own (this is referred to as a fully qualified domain name, FQDN), so server1.yourdomain.com for example, not just yourdomain.com. Changing it in that file ensure that your hostname gets set each time networking starts, however you'...
By jason, January 24, 2015


How To Disable Shell Access For A Specific User

If you would like to disable shell access for a specific user you can do the following. In this example we will disable shell access for username johnsmith: chsh -s /bin/false johnsmith Please note that this disables shell access for the user when they are logging in using the normal means. If the user is able to execute commands through a PHP/CGI script they can spawn their own shell. ...
By tilisha, January 24, 2015


How To Harden Your TCP/IP Stack Against SYN Floods

SYN Floods Denial of service (DoS) attacks launch via SYN floods can be very problematic for servers that are not properly configured to handle them. Proper firewall filtering policies are certainly usually the first line of defense, however, the Linux kernel can also be hardened against these types of attacks. This type of hardening is useful for SYN floods that attempt to overload a particular service with requests (such a...
By jessica, January 24, 2015


ImageMagick [Imagick] PHP Class Broken Or Fails To Install

Introduction to Imagick Some versions of CentOS (including the most recent 5.5) have an issue with a buggy 6.4.8 RPM version of ImageMagick. This version prevents the Imagick PHP class from working properly and also prevents the extension from being installed via PECL. If you are using this PHP class on your site, you will see an error something like: Fatal error: Class 'Imagick' not found in /home/user/public_html/file.ph...
By peggy, January 24, 2015


How To Install IOTop On CentOS 5

Iotop is a Python program with a top like UI used to show on behalf of which process is the I/O going on. This can come in handy for administrators trying to track down a specific process that may be causing a disk I/O bottleneck. Pre-RequisitesIOTop uses features that are a part of a newer kernel build than what CentOS ships with, so you must upgrade your kernel to at least 2.6.20. The process of doing so is outside ...
By tommy, January 24, 2015


How To Lock And Unlock A System User Account

Disabling shell access doesn't fully lock a user out of a server. They can still login via ftp/pop/imap/smtp servers if they are running on the local server and are checking local user authentication. Below you will find instructions on how to fully lock a system users account. In this example, we will lock the system user peterhope /bin/passwd -l  In this example, we will unlock the system user peterhope ...
By justin, January 24, 2015


How To Get Your LVM To Show Up In Single User Mode

When booting Linux into single user mode or rescue mode, you will find that unless the distro was found and enabled the logical volumes, you won't see any devices. This makes it a fun task when you need to mount, scan, resize a partition. Below are instructions on enabling your logical volumes. lvm vgscan lvm vgchange -ay lvm lvs It's as simple as that, now you should see your normal LVM devices in /dev Example:...
By justin, January 24, 2015


How To Install Locate On CentOS Server

Introduction This how-to will show you how to install locate on a CentOS server. This command is often the easiest and fastest way to find the location of files and directories. This is very useful when you’re working on a Linux system for which you are not well acquainted. When you install mlocate, it will install the two commands locate and updatedb. It will also install a cron job that updates the database daily. Pr...
By BIP, August 20, 2016